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+P
Designation for ammo that is overloaded to make it slightly "hotter" (more powerful) than the standard for that caliber. Typically available for 9mm, .45 cal, and .38 Special. Not all guns are built to withstand the higher pressures, so check your owner's manual before using any +P.
NOTE: while some manufacturers sell .380 +P, there is no recognized standard for that caliber. Using it could damage the gun.
1911
A generic term for a full-sized pistol with a shape similar to the iconic Browning Model 1911.
.357 Sig
A relatively uncommon caliber intended to graft the ballistics of the .357 Magnum revolver onto the autoloader platform. Think of it as a .40 caliber on steroids. It is becoming increasingly common as a police sidearm. It was developed by the Sig Sauer company.
Autoloader
Another term for a semi-automatic pistol.
Backstop
At a firing range, the obstacle behind the target that keeps the bullets from leaving the range and possibly causing damage or injury elsewhere. It can be a hill or high mound of earth backed up with concrete blocks, or a slanted concrete floor that guides bullets up into an overhead construction to minimize ricochets. Never try to shoot over the backstop, and be very wary of shooting anywhere without a suitable backstop. A stray bullet can travel hundreds of yards.
Backstrap
The rear part of the pistol grip, facing your palm. Some models have interchangeable backstraps, which can change the overall size of the grip to fit smaller or larger hands. When the grip is too big for your hand, there may be a tendency to address the trigger laterally, and cause shots to go left. When the grip is too small for the length of your fingers, you may put too much finger on the trigger, and pull right.
Beavertail
A sharp outward curve of the back of the grip just below the hammer or back of the slide. It fits into the soft fleshy part of the hand between thumb and index finger. It keeps you from getting your hand too high and getting caught by the mechanism. That said, your hand should be as high on the gun as possible, without trying to get above the beavertail.
Break
The point at which the trigger releases the hammer or striker.
Bullet
The metal slug at the front of a cartridge; the only part that travels through the barrel and out the muzzle.
Caliber
The measurement of the bore of the barrel; used to describe both the pistol and the ammo it shoots, i.e., .40 cal = 4/10 inch.
Cartridge/Round
Often confused with bullet, this is the entire cartridge that holds the bullet and powder.
Casing
The part of the cartridge that is left after the bullet is shot out of it. They are reusable, and used by people who reload their own ammo.
Center-fire
With the exception of the few rimfire calibers, most cartridges have the primer located in the center of the base of the casing. The firing pin has to strike the cartridge in the center to fire it.
Chamber
The only section at the rear of the barrel that is large enough for the cartridge. The cartridge is fired in the chamber, but stays there until removed, while the bullet travels down the barrel. An autoloader only has one chamber, while a revolver has 5-7 chambers in a rotating cylinder.
CHL
Acronym for Concealed Handgun License, known in some jurisdictions as CCW (Concealed Carry Weapon). See LTC.
Clearing
The act of removing the magazine and extracting all cartridges from an autoloader, or removing all cartridges/casings from a revolver, thus making it obvious to a witness that the pistol is completely safe. One should always clear a pistol/rifle before stepping away from the firing line, before carrying the gun (cased or uncased) anywhere, or before handing it to someone.
Cylinder
In a revolver, the cylinder holds the 5 (to 7) chambers, into which are inserted the cartridges.
Decocker
When a pistol (that has an external hammer) is in single-action mode, the shooter should not stop for any significant amount of time without letting the hammer back down. Since most people do not know how to decock a pistol properly, some guns come with a decocking lever which will do this safely.
Double-action
The trigger performs two actions: cocking the hammer against a spring, and releasing same to fire the round.
Dry-firing
Practicing trigger pulls without ammo. A very good exercise, but should not be done with rimfire guns, unless the manufacturer states that it is safe for the gun. Otherwise, damage could occur.
Ejector port
On a semi-automatic, the opening in the slide on the right side of the gun through which empty casings are ejected during the firing sequence. These casings will sometimes hit you in the face (hence the need for eye protection) or go down your shirt, and they will definitely hit the person to your right, unless there is a baffle in place. They are not dangerous, just annoying.
Eyes-and-ears
Slang for Eye Protection and Ear Protection, both of which are required at gun ranges.
FFL
Federal Fireams License. A Class 1 licensee can buy guns wholesale and sell them retail. While all gun stores have a Class 1 FFL, many such licensees are individuals who work from their homes. There are substantial paperwork requirements, overseen by the ATF. A Class 3 FFL is for firearms collectors. They cannot deal in firearms as a business. The paperwork is less, but the process of acquiring items for the collection is simplified.
Firing Pin Safety Block
An internal device present on many semi-automatics which prevents the gun from being discharged unless the trigger has been depressed. Dropping such a gun will not cause it to fire.
Flash-picture
There is an acquired skill of quickly pointing a gun, getting a sight-picture, and firing, without taking time to carefully align the sights. The purpose is defensive shooting. Experience and instinct are required.
Follow-through
In general, continuing to maintain all aspects of the fundamentals (stance, arm-extension, grip, etc.) past the point at which the shot breaks. More specifically, continuing to pull the trigger back past the break until it hits the frame. In both cases, the goal is to minimize any influence on the muzzle during the shot.
FMJ
Full Metal Jacket. Ammo where the bullet is enclosed in copper or zinc alloy, so no lead is exposed. These are less expensive than HP, and have greater penetration (sometimes too much).
FTE (Failure-to-eject)
In an autoloader, the shell just fired is automatically ejected out of the right side. If it doesn't eject at all, that could be a light primer strike. If it ejects enough to get caught by the slide returning to battery, that could be a too-strong recoil spring, or dirt in the slide rail, but is most often related to not having a firm enough grip on the pistol (see Limp-wristing).
Grain
A unit of weight for bullets (bullets, not cartridges), equal to 1/7000 of a lb. Heavier bullets move slower and drop more, but impart greater force. You can usually infer that a heavier bullet will have a stronger powder charge to compensate.
Grip
Both the portion of the pistol that you hold, and the way in which you hold it. Both are important.
Grip Safety
On 1911 pistols, a pressure point on the backstrap keeps the gun from firing unless it is held properly. It cannot fire if dropped, unless the grip safety is defective. Any type of safety can fail, although they seldom do.
Hollow-point (HP)
Bullets with a hollowed out tip, which causes them to expand in flight, and expand more on contact. The media typically thinks these are "cop-killer" rounds, but the intention is actually safety. The larger profile prevents over-penetration, which could cause a bullet to go all the way through a person and hit someone behind them. They were developed at the request of police agencies, to protect the public. A side-benefit is that they cause more surface damage, thus stopping an active shooter sooner.
Holster
A device for carrying a handgun. Usually made of leather or Kydex (a plastic-like material), and sometimes fabric or latex, these are important for protecting the trigger guard so nothing snags the trigger. They can be classified as "Inside-the-waistband" (IWB), "Outside-the-waistband" (OWB), i.e., open-carry, pocket holster, shoulder holster, ankle holster, bra holster, or "belly-band". There also exist holster purses for ladies, with a zipper pocket to keep a gun isolated from other contents.
Indexing
Keeping the index finger of the shooting hand always straight alongside the frame of the gun, and never inside the trigger guard, until a sight-picture is acquired.
IWB
Inside the WaistBand, a holster that fits between the belt and body, so the gun is inside the pants. Some models are "tuckable", meaning a shirttail can be tucked between the gun and the belt, so nothing can be seen except the metal hooks on the belt.
Kydex
A rigid, plastic-like material frequently used for holsters. Thy are molded for each model of gun, so the gun tends to "lock in", providing both retention capability, and one-handed reholstering. Law Enforcement holsters are almost always Kydex.
Laser
An aiming device used on military sniper rifles, but also on many handguns, often as an aftermarket add-on. It projects a red or green laser light beam onto the target, and assists in aiming. They have to be zeroed like a scope. They are often limited in range, and can be impossible to see in daylight.
LEO
Common acronym for Law Enforcement Officer.
Limp-wristing
The proper operation of a semi-automatic requires a minimum amount of recoil from the exploding cartridge to drive the slide back, eject the shell casing, and drive another cartridge into the chamber. If the shooter allows their arm/wrist to act like a spring, some of that force is absorbed, and the slide may not move back far enough to eject the casing. This leads to malfunctions.
LTC
Acronym for License to Carry, formerly known as CHL.
Luger
An iconic German pistol of the 1930s-40s, but also a label to describe traditional 9mm (Parabellum) ammunition. Never buy 9mm ammo that is NOT labeled "Luger" without a valid reason (see Makarov).
Magazine
A detachable container that holds cartridges; not a clip.
Makarov
An unusual variant on the 9mm (9x19) cartridge, the Russian Makarov is slightly shorter (9x18). It should only be fired in a pistol specifically chambered for the Makarov round.
MOA
Minute-of-angle. A ballistics term used to describe the fact that any error between POA and POI increases with distance to the target. Applies to any type of gun, but is most often used with rifles at 100+ yards. However, pistol shooters should be aware of the issue.
Muzzle
The business end of the barrel.
Muzzle-loader
A pistol or rifle that is about 200 years old, or is a replica of same. These were loaded through the muzzle (the front end), with black powder, then a cloth or paper patch, then a lead ball. That was tamped down with a rod. The ball is typically 50 caliber or bigger, and quite powerful. These replica guns are readily available and very popular for sporting and plinking purposes, but care must be taken, as black powder, unlike gunpowder, is explosive.
Open Carry
Carrying a pistol in a holster that is not concealed from public view. A license is required to do this in almost all states.
Overtravel
The distance the trigger travels after the shot breaks. Less is better. This is sometimes adjustable.
OWB
Outside the WaistBand, a holster worn in plain view, like a Police Officer. In Texas, these are only legal on private property, unless you are a LEO.
Plinking
Slang for fun target shooting, using paper targets, bottles, cans, melons, etc.
POA
Point of Aim. Where you want the bullet to go.
POI
Point of Impact. Where it actually went.
Point Shooting
Shooting without using the sights at all, using specific techniques. This takes practice, and is only viable at very short distances, 3 yards or less.
Primer
A small, concussive detonating device mounted in the base of a cartridge. It is set off by a sharp strike from a small, pointed object, and causes the powder in the cartridge to ignite, generating a large amount of gas. This propels the bullet down the barrel.
Rack
Verb, to pull back the slide on a semi-automatic and allow it to spring forward, loading a cartridge from the magazine into the chamber. Some degree of hand strength is required.
Red Dot
A popular aiming device often used on rifles, and sometimes pistols. It does not project a laser beam to the target (see Laser), but instead projects a red dot onto the image of the target inside the device itself. Consequently, neither distance to the target nor sunlight have any affect on it. It does have to be zeroed like a scope, although it does not magnify the image.
Rifling
A spiral groove cut into the bore of the barrel. This imparts spin to the bullet and contributes to greater accuracy, especially with rifles. It is similar to the spin of a football. Lighter or heavier bullet weights require different rates of twist of the rifling for greater efficiency.
Rimfire
Due to the small size, .17 and .22 caliber guns (pistols and rifles) have the primer embedded in the rim of the base of the casing, instead of the center. The firing pin has to hit the cartridge on the rim to fire it. Consequently, dry-firing guns of this type may damage the firing pin, as, without a shell casing in the way, the firing pin would hit the steel breech face.
RSO
Range Safety Officer. An individual with specialized training for managing a firing line with multiple shooters. If the number of people shooting is more than about 8, he may have some assistants. Always used at outdoor ranges, and often at indoor ranges. The RSO has a critical role in establishing and maintaining a set of rules and policies that will keep everyone safe. He/she has full authority to remove someone from the range if necessary. They are usually armed, for good reason.
Safety
A mechanical device on almost all pistols which prevents the pistol from shooting. While failure of this device is quite rare, you should never trust it with your life. They are usually mounted near the right thumb (ambidextrous safeties can be reached with either thumb), but are sometimes built into the grip (grip safety), so that the pistol has to be held properly to be fired.
Scope
Often used on rifles, but seldom on pistols, a scope magnifies the target from 3 to 15 times or more. Crosshairs assist in aiming. They can be quite expensive, often costing more than the gun, and require zero calibration at a specific distance. That is best done by an expert.
Sear
The part of the trigger mechanism that holds the hammer or striker back until sufficient pressure has been applied to the trigger, at which point the hammer or striker is released to strike the firing pin and discharge the weapon.
Sight-radius
The distance from the rear sight to the front sight. The shorter the sight-radius, the higher the degree of aiming error, multiplied by the distance. That is why longer-barreled pistols (and rifles) are more accurate at longer distances.
Sights
AKA Iron Sights. The front and rear sights permanently attached to most pistols. They are usually adjustable, although sometimes not easily.
Sight-picture
The combination view of rear sight, front sight, and target. The components must be aligned properly.
Single-action
When a pistol is cocked, and only a short trigger pull is required to fire it, it is said to be in single-action mode. Some pistols (revolvers) have to be manually cocked to be in this state, while some autoloaders are always in single-action mode after the first shot.
Slide
On an autoloader, the upper part of the gun, which moves back and forth on rails to load and eject cartridges. One should keep their hands away from the slide while firing.
Slide-bite
If you put the support-hand thumb behind the slide on an autoloader, you are likely to be struck by the slide as it cycles. It is not fatal, but hurts a lot, and tends to bleed profusely. People tend to only be "bitten" once, as they quickly learn a valuable lesson.
Snapcaps
Dummy cartridges used to test the action (loading/unloading) of pistols. They do nothing at all, and are often painted a bright red or blue.
Speed-loader
For semi-automatics, a device for assisting in pushing cartridges down into a magazine. Almost mandatory for some pistols. For revolvers, a device that holds 5 or 6 cartridges for quick insertion into the cylinder.
Stance
The basis of your shooting platform; the way you stand and position your body. The Weaver stance was in common use by law enforcement for many years, but that has largely been replaced now by the Isosceles stance.
Steel-core
Bullets are traditionally made of lead, and often coated with copper or zinc compounds. Steel-core bullets are made of steel. They are not more lethal, just cheaper. They are banned by many ranges, as they pose a fire hazard from sparks when they hit concrete.
Striker
Where hammer-fired pistols use an external hammer to drive the firing pin into the rear of the cartridge, firing the primer which ignites the powder in the cartridge, striker-fired pistols have a firing pin that is spring-loaded. Racking the slide puts partial spring pressure on the striker, but not full pressure. Pulling the trigger adds the additional spring pressure necessary to fire the gun. While it may not be accurate to say that striker-fired guns are safer than hammer-fired ones, it is safe to say that they are more "idiot-proof". They never have decockers, and seldom have safeties, so there is nothing to remember: just point and shoot (if it has been racked). Many modern pistols are striker-fired, like Glock, some Smith & Wesson, Springfield Armory, Ruger, and others. More traditional pistols, like CZ (and clones), Beretta, SIG Sauer, Kimber, and all 1911s are hammer-fired.
Stovepipe
Slang for an ejected casing that gets caught by the slide before it is fully clear of the gun (see FTE).
Sweeping the line
On a firing line, turning around (or to the side) without properly controlling the muzzle, so that it passes across one or more people. This is extremely dangerous, a huge breach of protocol, and will often result in you being ejected from the range. It will also cause you to be treated like a moron. The muzzle must always point downrange. Serious shooters are always conscious of this.
Tachypsychia
A sense that events have gone into slow motion, frequently encountered by people in gun fights. This can lead to confusion in police statements, which in turn can be interpreted as the shooter "changing his story". Defining an exact timeline should always be delayed for one sleep cycle.
Takeup
The distance the trigger travels before contacting the sear. Less is better for target shooting, but more is better (within reason) for safety purposes.
Tokarev
A high powered Soviet cold-war period pistol round (7.62x25), and used generically as a label for guns that fire this round. It is smaller than a 9mm, but much more powerful. Originally Russian, the TT-33 pistol was, after WWII, produced in all the Soviet-bloc and Warsaw Pact countries (Poland, Romania, Hungary, Yugoslavia, China), and then imported into, or manufactured in, many other countries. Almost identical copies of the Polish/Romanian/Chinese Tokarevs can now be found in Egypt, Syria, Libya, Pakistan, central Africa, Viet Nam, and other parts of the Pacific Rim. Although it has many of the design features of the iconic John Browning 1911, it is relatively rare in the U.S. Nevertheless, it is one of the most prolific models of pistol in the world.
Tracer rounds
Normally only used in machine guns, where every fifth round is coated with magnesium. Friction from the air makes them glow, so the gunners can see the path of fire. They have no useful purpose for civilians, but they have started fires at ranges. They are always banned from civilian ranges, but sometimes an idiot will sneak some in.
Trigger
The lever that releases the hammer/striker to strike the back of the cartridge. You must not touch the trigger until you are in position to shoot. The trigger guard protects the trigger from being snagged by clothing or holsters.
Wheel gun
Slang for a revolver.
Windage
Left and right adjustments in aiming, while up and down adjustments are called elevation. All scopes have windage and elevation fine adjustments. Most rifles and some pistols have windage adjustments possible (although some are tricky). Pistols typically do not have elevation adjustments available, except for target pistols.
Zero/Zeroing/Zero Calibration
Without getting too deep into the physics, an aiming device (scope/laser/red dot) cannot operate on a plane parallel to the plane of the bullet path (itself not flat), or the POA and POI will never intersect. Instead, the aiming plane is angled to intersect the plane of the bullet, at a specific distance, often 100 yds (rifle) or 25 yds (pistol). Consequently, the POI will be either high or low at other distances, so the shooter has to adjust manually.
Zippering
Technique for using a small caliber pistol (.22/.32) in a defensive situation. Inasmuch as these rounds have little stopping power, instead of shooting 2-3 times to the same area, shoot 6-10 times rapidly in a pattern from the chest down to the lower torso, the "zipper" effect. If the wounds are not fatal, the bad guy will at least be in serious trouble, as he will be bleeding from multiple places, and will not be able to stop the bleeding easily. This technique was developed by partisan guerillas during WWII for taking out sentries at Nazi locations like railway stations and ammo dumps.
Plano CHL
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